Sentences in Paper Writing


  • Vocabulary: boost the representation power
  • A Feature aggregation strategy is proposed to propagate information from early stags to the later ones. — (Li, et al. 2019) “Retinking on Multi-Stage Networks for Huma Pose Estimation”
  • A multi-stage network is vulnerable by the information losing during repeated up and down sampling. To mitigate this issuage, a cross stage feature aggregation strategy is used to propagte multi-scale features form the early stages to the current stage in an efficient way.— (Li, et al. 2019) “Retinking on Multi-Stage Networks for Huma Pose Estimation”
  • Features with different depth have different levels of abstraction of the image. — (Sun. et al. 2018) FishNet
  • Feature concatenation is used when vertical and horizontal arrow meet. — (Sun. et al. 2018) FishNet
  • In the context of the channels of a CNN, different channels are about differnt types of image features or raindrop features which cover a wide range of local image patterns. Deep Learning for Seeing Through Window With Raindrops
  • Then feature seletection in a CNN is about assigning different weights to different feature channels. This motivates us to incorporate a channel attention/recalibration mechanism into the CNN. Deep Learning for Seeing Through Window With Raindrops

Cause and Effects

don’t use ‘Because’ as the first word in a sentence: it’s bad style.
There are a number of alternatives. You can use:

  • ‘Due to…’; e.g. ‘Due to the heavy rain there was flooding.’
  • ‘Owing to …’; e.g. ‘Owing to the heavy rain there was flooding.’
  • ‘As…’; e.g. ‘As there was heavy rain, there was flooding.’


  • Vocabulary: inconsequential, sufficiently, vulnerable, mitigate
  • … is still in its infancy stage
  • … contains noticeable artifacts.


  • Both … and … were fairly satisfied with…
  • almost the same
  • very similar, identical
  • exactly, practically, approximately, almost, nearly, about, the same as


  • exploits …
  • Note that the single stage module structure itself is not novel, but applying it in a multi-stage setting is new and shown effective in this work for the first time. — (Li, et al. 2019) “Retinking on Multi-Stage Networks for Huma Pose Estimation”


  • significiant, outstanding
  • remarkable, obvious, notable (显著的) noticebale, brings noticebale performance improvement

Code will be released soon

  • The source code of our algorithm will be made public soon to facilitate further research.

Writing Style

Describe the Figure

  • See Fig. 1 for the illustration of real images taken through windows with raindrops
  • the subjective is we, or the figure.
  • the survey shows that….
  • From/In the table, we can find/see that…
  • It can be seen from the figure that…
  • By comparing ## with ours, we can find that, ### can bring noticeable performance improvement, e.g. the PSNR improvement of ##dB is observed.


  • Such results have demostrated the effectiveness of ###
  • This demostrated that ###

To describe the trends

Useful phrases for data description

  • It can be seen from Table X that…
  • As is shown in Figure Y, …
  • As the findings in Figure Y reveal/show/indicate,…
  • The effects of … on… are shown in Figure 3.
  • According to Table Z, …

Some tips on verb tenses and voices

ContentLanguage Feature
Procedures of the studyPassive Voice and Past Tense
The instrument itselfPresent Tense or Past Tense


  • The network is exemplified in Figure. — (Li, et al. 2019) “Retinking on Multi-Stage Networks for Huma Pose Estimation”


The Conclusion chapter usually contains five elements in the following order:

  1. Restatement of the study’s purpose
     Recapitulate the main points by stating again
    (i) the situation in the field before your study was carried out, i.e. the problems and gaps;
    (ii) the study’s purpose; and
    (iii) your research questions (and hypotheses, if any).

  2. Summary of the major findings
     Present succinctly your answers to each of your research questions.
     State your proven hypotheses, if any.

  3. Significance and implications of your study
     Stress how your findings have improved the situation by addressing the gaps and dealing with the problems.
     Make it clear to what extent you have filled the gaps or alleviated the problems.
     Refer to previous research for comparison or support.
     Explain any unexpected outcomes and results which contradict previous findings.
     Articulate the contributions of your findings (and/or methodology) to your field.
     Discuss the applicability of your methodology and findings to other contexts, and the generalisability of your results.
     Do not over exaggerate your achievements.

  4. Limitations of your study
     Be critical of your study.
     State the weaknesses of all aspects of your study, e.g. methodology and generalisability.
     Acknowledge any mistakes made, and the problems and weaknesses that remain.
     Show that you are a reflective researcher. It is better that you point out your limitations than have the examiners point them out for you.

  5. Recommendations for future research
     State the need for further research.
     Make concrete and constructive suggestions about future lines of investigation.
     Provide brief justifications.

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